Products & Services

Primary Human Liver Cells

Cell supply and quality are critical to meeting our mission to develop 3D human tissues. Our wholly-owned subsidiary, Samsara Sciences, is dedicated to the isolation and characterization of high-quality, primary human liver cells.  Samsara serves as a key source for the human liver cells that support our in vitro liver tissue models, enabling the development of our clinical liver therapeutic tissue programs.

Samsara offers an extensive library of primary human liver cells isolated from healthy and diseased tissue from a wide variety of donor backgrounds. High-quality tissue-derived reagents are a valuable tool for pharmaceutical and academic researchers focused on the study of liver disease.


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In Vitro Testing Services

Our ExVive™ 3D Bioprinted Human Liver Tissue is a multicellular, dynamic and functional 3D human tissue model available for in vitro preclinical testing through our NovoView™ Preclinical Testing Services. Primary human hepatocytes, hepatic stellate cells, endothelial cells and (optionally) Kupffer cells are placed in a compartmentalized architecture using our proprietary 3D bioprinting process. The tissues can be studied for up to 4 weeks and exhibit architectural and functional features that mimic key aspects of the native human tissue environment.

We work closely with clients to design the optimal combination of endpoints to assess the effects of their test articles in our tissue. Multiple biochemical, genomic, proteomic and histologic endpoints can be assessed over time, in response to test articles including small molecules, biologics, natural products, toxins and nucleic acids. We apply quality control and assurance processes that ensure our customers can rely on the quality of the data we generate. Our team has significant experience in each step of the bioprinting process, from 3D bioprinting to subsequent maintenance, monitoring, and analyses of the ExVive™ Human Liver Tissue. Our clients use the resulting human tissue data to support their preclinical and clinical programs.

Study Length

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Disease Modeling

ExVive™ 3D Bioprinted Human Liver Tissue is uniquely suited for modeling chronic liver diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and fibrosis. The 3D multicellular tissue architecture allows for histological readouts of key liver disease features such as collagen deposition, stellate cell activation, steatosis and hepatocellular ballooning. The ability to culture the tissue over several weeks allows for assessment of disease progression and efficacy of our clients’ test articles.

Disease Model ExVive Liver Tissue vs Native NASH Tissue
Trichrome staining of ExVive™ 3D Bioprinted Human Liver Tissue (similar to native tissue) reveals induction of NASH phenotypes when cultured in high fat and sugar media

Safety Testing

ExVive™ 3D Bioprinted Human Liver Tissue is used for preclinical toxicity testing of clients’ drug candidates. The in vivo-like tissue architecture supports a microenvironment with cell-cell interactions as well as proper expression and function of key liver proteins such as metabolic enzymes and transporters. The tissue is particularly useful in the safety assessment of compounds that cause damage through multicellular mechanisms or require histological endpoints for detection and interpretation.


Nguyen DG, et al. (2016) PLoS One. 11(7):e0158674.
Norona LM, et al. (2016) Tox Sci. 154(2):354-367.
Norona LM, et al. (2019) PLoS One. 14(1):e0208958.